To get started, use a template that can be found on the internet. Thousands of templates can be found for free on the internet and can be used as a starter.
You can search for: “adobe xd dashboard ui kit free” in Google then you find something like this.
Download a template and update it for your needs.
You can also find icons on such site as
Combine different icons because you will both draw icons later in illustrator and export them as svg files. You can also google interesting ideas and use found images to draw your own icons in illustrator.
It goes without saying that your best would even do everything. Because in most cases these free designs are useless because people experiment themselves and color theme they apply and layout can expect better but nothing pours you to adjust a bit. Or if you don't like anything you can just start from skratch.
Usually adjusting colors and layout with correct positions helps. Use a predefined color palette and with that you will progress fairly quickly. Much faster than without a palette.
See a pallet example below.